Respiratory System!!!!!
Rachael Alvarado, Estefania Quirnio, Lauren Perez

Introduction
The respiratory system is important because it is responsible for keeping us alive and taking in oxygen which is necessary for our bodies.

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​Functions of the Respiratory System

​The Respiratory System consists of the lungs and air passages. It is responsible for taking in oxygen, and removing carbon dioxide. The Respiratory System must work continuously to prevent death. The body has 4-6 minutes supply of oxygen.


​Major Organs/Structures
  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Alveoli


Pathway

  1. Air enters nostrils
  2. passes through the nasopharynx,
  3. the oral pharynx
  4. through the glottis
  5. into the trachea
  6. into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebracnches into
  7. bronchioles, each which terminate into a cluster of
  8. alveoli

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Nose, Pharynx, Larynx
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Trachea, Bronchi
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Lungs, Bronchi, Alveoli


Function of each structure

  • Nose - has two openings, nostrils or nares, which air enters into. Follows into nasal cavities, it immediately is warmed, filterd and moistened, Mucus, produced by mucous membranes, moistens air and helps tep the pathogens and dirt.
  • Sinuses - are cavaties in the skull surrounding the nasal area. Sinuses lined with a mucous membranes which warms and moistens the air, Also provides resonance for the voice.
  • Pharynx(or throat) - is directly behind nasal cavity. When air leaves the nose it enters the pharynx. Three sections: nasopharynx, upper portion located behind nasal cavaties, contains the tonsils or adenoids,(lymphatic tissue), and eustachian tube( tube to middle ear). Oropharynx, middle section, located behind oral cavity(mouth). Recieves both air from nasopharynx and food & air from the mouth. Laryngopharynx, bottom section, esophagus, carries food to stomachm and trachea, carries air to and from lungs branch off from here.
  • Larynx - voice box, lies between pharynx and trachea, has 9 layers of cartlidge, largest is the thyroid cartlidge (commonly known as Adam's apple). Larynx contains 2 folds called vocal cords. Opening between vocal cords called glottis. When air leaves lungs, vocal cords vibrate and produce speech. Epiglottis, a special leaflike piece of cartlidge, closes opening into larynx during swallowing prevents food and liquids entering respiratory tract.
  • Trachea (wind pipe) - tube extending from larynx to center of chest, carries air between pharynx and bronchi. Series of C- shaped cartlidges, help keep trachea open. ( Open on dorsal surfaces). Divides into
  • Bronchi - 2, near the center of the chest, right and left bronchus. Right shorter, wider and extends more vertically than left. Each bronchus enters lung and carries air from trachea to lung. Bronchi continue to divide into smaller bronchi until smaller bronchi until smallest branches, bronchioles. Smallest bronchioles called terminal bronchioles, end in air sacs called
  • Alveoli - resembles bunch of grapes. Adult lung contains approximately 500 million alevoli. Made of one layer of squamous epithelial tissue and contain a rich network of blood capillaries. Capillaires allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange between blood and lungs. Inner surfaces called surfactant, to help prevent them from collapsing.
  • Lungs - Right lung has three sections or lobes: superior, the middle and inferior. Left lung only two lobes: superior and inferior. Left lung smaller because heart located toward the left side of chest. Each lung enclosed in a membrane, or sac, called pleura. Pleura consits of 2 layers: visceral pleura attached to the surface of the lung and a parietal pleura attached to the chest wall. Pleural space, located between 2 layers, filled with a thin layer of pleural fluid that lubricated the membranes and prevents friction as lungs expand during breathing. Lungs along with heart and major blood vessels located in the thoracic cavity.
Conclusion
The Respiratory System is the system that keep us going! It's vital because it is the system that is responsible for taking in oxygen and keeping us alive but also for giving our cells oxygen so they can reproduce, move, build and turn food into energy.
Interesting Facts


  • A person at rest usually breathes between 15 and 20 times a minute.
  • We lose half a liter of water a day through breathing. Which is water vapor we see when we breathe onto glass.
  • We breathe in around 13 pints of air.



Resources/Refrences
http://respiratory-system.blogspot.com/2009/02/interesting-facts-things-about.html

http://www.wallasey.wirral.sch.uk/Intranet/Sciences/biology/humanbody/respfact.htm
WEBSITES

www.naturalnews.com/News_000659_VapoRub_over-the-counter_medicine_childrens_health.html
- Vicks VapoRub Causes Severe Respiratory Problems In Children

www.naturalnews.com/025696_incense_cancer_respiratory_cancer.html
-Breathing Inscence Smoke Boosts Respiratory Cancer Risk