Intro -Group Members consists of Ashlee, Kaitlin, Raj.
Our group will be discussing to you about the urinary system which is an important system of our boby and the different organs that make up the system.

What makes the Urinary System so important - The urinary system also known as the excretory system or thegenitourinary system produces, stores, and eliminates urine
and other waste.

The Urinary System
The Process
The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After they collect waste called urea from the blood. Urea is produced when protein, found in meat products, is broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney into the Ureter. Then the Ureter the urine is carried to the bladder, where it is stored. At the time of dischare the urine is released through the Urethra.

Major Organs/ Functions of the Organs -
Function of the Kidneys:

1. Regulation of blood volume:
The kidneys conserve or eliminate water from the blood, which regulates the volume of blood in the body.

2. Regulation of blood pressure:
The kidneys regulate blood pressure in 3 ways, by:
o Adjusting the volume of blood in the body
o Adjusting the flow of blood both into, and out of, the kidneys
o The kidneys secret renin, which activates the angiotensin-aldosterone pathway

3. Regulation of the pH of the blood:Kidney-detail.jpg
The kidneys excrete H+ ions into urine. Also the kidneys conserve bicarbonate ions, which is an important buffer of H+

4. Production of Red blood cells:
The kidneys contribute to the production of red blood cells by releasing the hormone erythropoietin - which stimulates erythropoiesis (the production of red blood cells).

5. Synthesis of Vitamin D:
The kidneys synthesize calcitrol - which is the active form of vitamin D.

6. Excretion of waste products and foreign substances:
The kidneys help to excrete waste products and foreign substance from the body by forming urine.

Functions of the Ureters:

1. There are two ureters, one leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder. Each of these transports urine from the renal pelvis of the kidney to the bladder.

2. Both of the ureters pass beneath the urinary bladder, which results in the bladder compressing the ureters, preventing back-flow of urine. This is crucial because if it is not operating correctly - cystitis, which is inflammation of the ureter / urinary bladder, may develop into a kidney infection.

Functions of the Bladder:img-bladderweak-sphin-muscl.jpg

1. The purpose of the urinary bladder is to store urine until the discharge of urine from the body

2. The bladder also expels urine into the urethra by a process called micturition

Functions of the Urethra:
1. The urethra is the passageway through which urine is discharged from the body.

Conclusion -
Without the Urinary system we would have major issues. We would not be able to filter our blood, get rid of waste that our boby has produced, and other important things that our urinary system takes care of. So
although the urinary system may not seem that important, it is one
of the most important system in our body.

References -

Q/A about the Urinary System

Q: Under normal circumstances, the kidneys produce about _ liters of glomerular filtrate per day

A : 180

Q: How many phases are there to the formation of urine?

A: Urine formation begins with the filtration of liquids. The next phase is reabsorption, where substances are moved out of the renal tubules into the surrounding peritubular capillaries. The third step is secretion, during which substances move from the surrounding capillaries into the urine.

Q: What is a tubular structure that filters the urine in the kidney?
A: Nephron

Q: What is the medical term for a kidney stone?
A: Nephrolith

Q: What is a blood test done to measure the urea, which indicates normal or abnormal kidney function?
A: BUN. BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen

Q: What is the main organ of the urinary system?
A: kidney & kidneys & the kidney & the kidneys

Q: What is the inability to produce urine?
A: Anuria

Q: What is a specialist who deals with the urinary system?
A: urologist & nephrologist

Q: Which of these is NOT a part of the urinary system?
A: Uterus

Q: Which of these is a diuretic?
A: Aldactone

Fun Facts about the Urinary System -
1. The Human bladder can stretch to hold about 400ml of urine.
2. All the blood in our body passes 400 times through each Kidney every day.
3. Human being on an average excrete about 1 to 1.5 litres of urine per day.
4. Each kidney is made of about 1 million nephrons.
5. The ancient Romans used urine as a bleaching agent for cleaning clothes.
6. Urine has historically been used as an antiseptic.
7. The yellow colour of urine was once thought to come from gold. Alchemists in the middle ages
spent much time trying to extract gold from urine.

Preferred Websites -

Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

Functions of the Urinary System